Understanding and managing menopause

Lesson 2: Menopause and Climacteric Syndrome

Menopause Syndrome refers to the group of symptoms experienced by some women during menopause. Hot flashes (vasomotor instability symptom), which is for one year in 80% are typical of the menopause syndrome. It decreases of its own with 3 to 4 years. The cause of hot flashes is not clear, but the following withdrawal of estrogen in women with poor vascular control. The rise of hypothalamic endorphin is involved. It is experienced, 25% women psychological background, especially after oophorectomy or ovarian irradiation at a younger age.

Flush is dependent on a speed of extragonadal estrogen loss and formation estrone. The body adapts gradually to the natural decline in estrogen and flushes gradually.


These appear as follows: vasomotor and other symptoms usually follow, but also pre-cessation of menstruation.

  1. Menstruation. Menses stop as already described under the menopause. Some of the premenopausal women have emotional symptoms, loss of libido and vaginal dryness during intercourse, are hot flushes and sweating complained about scanty and delayed menstruation in some women?
  2. Vasomotor. Hot flashes due to cutaneous vasodilation are often experienced by these women on the face and neck spread all over the body; this feeling of heat can be followed by sweating. It may be a day once per hour, but sometimes; they occur mainly at night. These are typical manifestations of menopause syndrome.
  3. Emotional. This is manifested by headaches, irritability, insomnia, dizziness, fatigue, depression, heart palpitations. Nonetheless, there are feelings of "pins and needles" in the heart as well as palms. Disturbed sleep may be due to hot flashes and sweating.
  4. Sexual. These are reduced libido and dyspareunia as a result of atrophic virginities and absence of vaginal oil during sexual intercourse.
  5. Musculoskeletal. These appear as back pain, pain in the joints due to laxity of the ligaments and muscles.

Signs. These are the same as described with menopause.

Diagnosis. This has already been described in the menopause.

Differential diagnosis. Pseudocyesis false pregnancy can be confused by the patient for the menopausal syndrome. In the first case, amenorrhea, breast, and belly by deposition of fat as that of pregnancy; there is also the false sense of fetal movements by flatulent dyspepsia. The patient must be assured that its symptoms of menopause. In all these cases, pregnancy may also occur and have to be carefully excluded thorough research, immunological urine pregnancy test likewise pelvic ultrasound.

Premature menopause

Definition. Menopause come on a patient under 35 is called premature menopause which is been Caused by an inadequate stock of ovarian follicles that is exhausted. Clinical features, symptoms, secondary amenorrhea for more than 6 months. In a number of hot flashes, mood instability, disturbed sleep, loss of libido, (menopause syndrome). Drawing her, Signs, Atrophic vaginal epithelium, ordinary or little-measured uterus. Investigations. Male menopause, about 10 percent of men experience menopause symptoms later in life than women as a result of androgen deprivation. The remaining 90 percent will gradually adapt without symptoms.

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Lesson 1: Physiological changes in menopausal and post-menopausal age (Prev Lesson)
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